# Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering | Thumb Rules:

**Civil engineering** is a diverse and complex field with its own unique principles, concepts, and terms. To succeed in a career in civil engineering, it’s essential to have a firm grasp of the fundamentals of this multifaceted science. This guide provides an overview of the **fundamental concepts** that everyone should know before delving deeper into civil engineering. Following are the** Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge **points to remember for civil engineers to make the construction work easier while maintaining the quality of work;

**Civil Engineering Basics Knowledge:**

- Basic Knowledge for
**Cement** - Basic Knowledge for
**Concrete** - Basic Knowledge for
**Beam**and**Slab**,**Column** - Basic Knowledge for
**Bricks**

### Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering for Cement

**Cement**,**sand**, and**aggregate**are used to identify concrete grades.- The cement’s
**final setting time**is**10 hours**, while the**starting setting time**cannot be less than**30 minutes**. - A
**circular column**must have a minimum of**six longitudinal bars**. **Plain cement concrete (PCC**) When the tensile force is not acting on it, this form of concrete is used on members.- A 50 kg
**cement bag**takes up 0.3m2 of floor space and 0.18m of height. - 50 kg of
**cement**has a 1.3 CFT**volume**. **Construction**cannot be done with cement that is older than three months.

### Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering for Concrete

**Concrete**shouldn’t be**dropped**from a height of more than one metre.- For
**concrete mix**, sand with a moisture level of at**least 5%**should be used. - For every 30 cm3 of
**concrete**used, a**cube test**is conducted. **Ready-mix concrete,**which is manufactured in a factory and delivered to the**construction**site, is used when there is insufficient space for**mixing concrete**and when a large volume of concrete is needed for a project.**Hardened concrete**develops cracks or**honeycomb**as a result of adding extra water to the concrete mix to speed up setting.**DPC**must have a minimum**thickness of 2.5 cm**.**Concrete’s**impermeability the type of concrete that is resistant to**water**or moisture.**Concrete pumps**can lift the concrete up to a**maximum of 50 metres**. The**RCC**cure time is 25 days.**Concrete and steel**have both thermal expansion coefficients with a value of 12 X10-6/Degree C.- Typically,
**M20 grade concrete**is used to build the slab.

### Basic Knowledge of Construction for Beam, Slab and Column

**Hook length**must be at least 9D.**Theodolite’s minimum count**is 20 seconds; while compass Least count is 30 mins.**Each bar**leaves the factory with a 12 m length.- A head mason may complete 25–30 #3 projects per day. In the
**construction industry**, man-hours are used to determine the rate analysis for labour. **Simply supported beams**have a minimum of two supports, while cantilever beams have one fixed support and the other end is free.**Dead load**is the structure’s own weight.- Typically, the
**floor**is 3 metres (10 feet) high. - To remove the air bubble in the
**concrete mix**, vibration is used when creating new concrete. - The
**height of the sill level**should be at least 44 inches. - Tie refers to the
**transverse reinforcement**that the column provides

And they are known as stirrups when they arrive in beams. - To handle the
**shear force**and maintain the alignment of the longitudinal bars, stirrups are installed in the beams and ties in the columns. - If the
**bar’s diameter**is greater than 36 MM, lapping of bars is not permitted. - The
**slab**must be at least 0.125m thick. - DPC must have a
**minimum thickness**of 2.5 cm. - Use of water with a
**PH**of less than 6 is not advised for construction. **Thermal expansion**is the main justification for using steel as reinforcement.

### Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge for Bricks

- The
**No. of bricks**required for 1m^{3}of brick masonry is 550 Bricks. - The weight of
**first-class**clay brick should be 3.85 kg. - The
**Crushing strength of brick**10.5 MN/m^{2}. - The standard size of brick is
**19cm X 9Cm X 4Cm**.

**Density of Construction Materials**

**Bricks**– 1600 – 1920 kg/m^{3}**Concrete block**– 1920 kg/ m^{3}**Reinforce Concrete**– 2310 – 2700 kg/ m^{3}**Plain cement Concrete**– 2400 kg/m^{3}**Lime mortar**– 1760kg/m^{3}**Aluminum**– 2739 kg/m^{3}**Glass**– 2580 kg/m^{3}**Zinc**– 7135 kg/m^{3}**Clay soil**– 1900 kg/m^{3}**Bamboo**– 350 kg/m^{3}

**De-Shuttering Period of Different RCC Me**mbers

- The period for column,
**wall**, and vertical**formworks**– 16-24 hrs. - Period for Soffit
**formwork**to slab – 3 days (props to be refixed after removal) - The period for
**Soffit**to beam props – 7 days (props to be refixed after removal) **Beam**spanning up to 4.5m – 7 days**Beam spanning**over 4.5m – 14 days**Arche’s spanning**up to 6m – 14 days- Arche’s spanning over 6m – 21 days

## Min Nos. Of Concrete Cube Sample for Given Volume of Concrete

- 1 – 5 m
^{3}= 1 Nos. - 6 – 15 m
^{3}= 2 Nos. - 16 – 30 m
^{3}= 3 Nos. - 31 – 50 m
^{3}= 4 Nos. - Above 50 m
^{3}= 4 + 1 Nos**.**

## Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering for Grades of Concrete

Grades of Concrete | The proportion of C:S: A |

M5 | 1:5:10 |

M7.5 | 1:4:8 |

M10 | 1:3:6 |

M15 | 1:2:4 |

M20 | 1:1.5:3 |

M25 | 1:1:2 |

## Clear Cover for main reinforcement

- CC For
**Beam**: 25mm - CC For Slab: 15mm
- CC For Flat slab
**:**20mm - CC For
**Staircase**: 15mm - CC For Water tank Structure:
- CC For
**Retaining Wall**: 20 to 25mm to earth surface - CC For Column: 40mm
- CC For
**Shear wall**: 25mm - CC For
**Raft foundation**topside: 50mm - CC For Raft foundation Bottom and Sides: 75mm

## Different types of loads act on Building

**Live Load****Dead Load****Wind Load****Self Load****Snow Load****Seismic Load**or Earthquake load**Hurricane Load**at some location

## Slump Value for Different Concrete Works

For Concrete Work | Slump Value in mm |

Mass Construction | 25-50 |

Beam and Slab | 12-25 |

Cement Concrete Pavements | 30-75 |

Deck of Bridges | 20-30 |

Vibrated Concrete | 50-100 |

Retaining Walls, Columns | 75-150 |

**Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering for Interviews**

**1) Slope of Staircase**

The** slope of staircase** varies from 25° to 40° as per the IS code 456-2000

**2) Volume of Cement Bag**

Weight of one cement bag is 50 kg so the** volume of 1 cement bag** is 0.0347 m³ or 1.23 CFT

**3)**** ****Expiry Date of Cement Bags**

**Expiry date** is three month after the bag is packed.

**4) Why is Foundation Provided?**

Foundation should be provided in order to safel**y distribute the load of structure** in the soil

**5) Types of Foundations**

- Shallow foundation
- Deep foundation

**6)** **Calculation of weight of Steel bar**

**7) Minimum grade of concrete used for RCC**

M20

**8) Shuttering Removing Time**

Side of wall column and Outer side of** beam shuttering** is removed after the 24 hours to 48 hrs of concrete. Beam soffits shuttering is removed after 7 (seven) days**. Slab shuttering** is removed after 3(three) days. Remove the props of the** slab** after 21 (twenty one) days of span greater than 6m and after 14 (fourteen) days of span less than 6m.

**9) What are the Concrete Tests?**

**The Compressive strength test,** Slump Test, Water absorption test, Water permeability test

**10) What is the Unit Weight of Steel?**

78.5 KN/m³ is the unit weight of steel.

**11) Unit Weight of Concrete **

**The unit weight of concre**t**e** of RCC (Reinforcement Cement Concrete) is 25 KN/m³ and PCC is 24 KN/m³

**12) Compressive Strength of Bricks**

**Compressive Strength of First class Brick** – 105 kg/cm²

**Compressive Strength of Second class Brick** – 70 kg/cm²

**Compressive Strength of Fire Brick** – 125 kg/cm²

**13)**** ****The Setting Time of Cement**

**Initial setting time** is 30 Mins And the final setting time of cement is 90 minutes.

**14) Curing Methods of Concrete**

Spraying, Wet covering of Surface, ponding, Curing chemicals, Steam curing, Sprinkling

**15) Function of Stirrups in Beams?**

Stirrups are used in beams to resist shear force

**16) Need of Pile Foundation**

Pile foundation is acquired when the soil bearing capacity is less than 24 KN/m³

**17) Standard Height**

Height **of each floor is **3 M

**18) Grouting**

It is a process in which a mixture of cement and sand proportion of 1:3 (one in three) is shooted on the ground surface with the help of gun pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm²

This basic questions are asked in interviews. Every engineers must kept this knowledge in your mind.

**FAQs:**

**What is Civil Engineering?**

Civil Engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the built environment, including structures such as buildings, roads, bridges, and water and sewage systems. It is a multi-disciplinary field that involves a combination of various scientific and engineering principles.

**What do Civil Engineers do?**

Civil Engineers are responsible for designing, supervising and overseeing the construction of a wide range of infrastructure projects. They use their knowledge of mathematics, physics and materials science to create cost-effective, safe and sustainable structures. They also plan, design and oversee the construction of transportation systems, water supply and sewage systems, and other public works projects.

**What are the key areas of specialization in Civil Engineering?**

Some of the key areas of specialization in Civil Engineering include: Structural Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, and Coastal Engineering.

**What skills are required for Civil Engineers?**

Civil Engineers require a variety of skills, including technical skills in mathematics and engineering, strong problem-solving skills, good communication and teamwork skills, and project management skills. They should also be able to analyze and interpret data, be detail-oriented, and have a strong understanding of building codes and regulations.

**How long does it take to become a Civil Engineer?**

Becoming a Civil Engineer typically requires a bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering, which takes four years to complete. Some Civil Engineers may choose to pursue a master’s degree in Civil Engineering, which typically takes an additional two years. After completing their education, Civil Engineers typically need to gain several years of experience before they can become licensed professional engineers.